By DOROTHY KORBER
July 27, 2005
That dual identity reflects Pakistan's complex history as well as its perilous geography, perched on the Arabian Sea and sharing tense borders with Iran, Afghanistan, China and India.
Although Pakistani officials insist they've cleaned out al-Qaida training camps in their country, a young Lodi man told FBI agents in June he spent six months in such a camp near Rawalpindi in 2003-04, according to federal court documents.
Hamid Hayat said he "observed hundreds of attendees from various parts of the world at this camp," his FBI interrogator wrote in the documents.
Reacting to this claim, Pakistan Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz told reporters flatly on June 11: "There are no such camps."
But Hayat, 22, and his father, Lodi ice cream vendor Umer Hayat, told the FBI of a half-dozen other young Lodi men who received jihadi training in Pakistan, the documents state. Umer Hayat, 47, also said he toured several other training camps and observed training in weaponry and urban warfare, says an affidavit filed in the case.
Both Hayats, who are in custody in Sacramento County jail on charges they lied to the FBI, now deny any connection with terrorists, and their attorneys say their statements were made under duress. Their trial is set for Aug. 23 in U.S. District Court in Sacramento.
In Britain, investigators into the murderous July 7 attacks in London found that three of the four suicide bombers recently made extended trips to Pakistan, where they may have trained with extremists, according to news reports.
The Pakistani connection in these far-flung cases does not surprise James Phillips, an expert on international terrorism at the Heritage Foundation, a research institute in Washington, D.C.
"Pakistan is a hotbed for this kind of activity because the Pakistani government has turned a blind eye to Islamic radicalism in its midst," Phillips said.
"There is a network of al Qaida sympathizers in the provinces along the Afghan frontier; the Pakistani federal government has never really controlled those tribal areas. There is terrorist training going on there."
Phillips and other experts on the region say that after the Taliban was deposed by U.S. forces in Afghanistan, many of the regime's supporters fled to Pakistan's rugged borderlands and teeming cities to hide out and regroup.
They appear to have been joined by some disaffected young Muslims from America and Britain, drawn to Pakistan by the jihad, the holy war against enemies of Islam. In one such case, four young Virginians were convicted last year of providing "material support" to terrorism by attending a jihadi camp near Muzafrabad, Pakistan, shortly after Sept. 11, 2001.
These alienated youths are attracted by more than religious conviction, Phillips said: "It is intoxicating for them. It gives them a sense of belonging to a greater movement, it promises salvation, it fills psychological needs. Many are single men who feel ... like strangers in a strange land. They're often drawn to radicalism for social reasons as much as religious ones."
Phillips contends Pakistan's loose system of conservative religious schools, known as madrassahs, contributes to the country's culture of militancy.
Umer Hayat told FBI agents his son learned about jihadi training camps while at a Pakistani madrassah, according to court documents. One of the London bombers, Shehzad Tanweer, reportedly attended a militant madrassah near Lahore for more than two months. "Some of these madrassahs are set up to be jihad factories," Phillips said. "They hijack Islam and brainwash their converts. True Islam condemns suicide bombing and condemns the killing of innocent women and children."
A few radical madrassahs do groom recruits for the jihad, agreed Husain Haqqani, author of a book published this month: "Pakistan - Between Mosque and Military." But most of the seminaries are benign, said Haqqani, himself a product of a madrassah in Karachi.
"We don't want to panic Americans about every Muslim who goes to a madrassah," he said. "Most of these schools are very conservative, very orthodox, but not necessarily violent. There are 13,000 madrassahs in Pakistan today - if they were all radical we would have a million terrorists in Pakistan. However, there is a small number that have been used as a front by radical groups and for radical training."
Publish A Letter on SitNews Read Letters/Opinions
Submit A Letter to the Editor