By DAVID R. BAKER
San Francisco Chronicle
August 25, 2006
Litter is scarce. Pipeline leaks, like the one that shut half of the Prudhoe Bay oil field this month, tend to be small. An intricate network of pipes crosses the land, but much of it hangs suspended several feet above the tundra, propped up on supports.
Yet the North Slope operations - like oil production facilities everywhere - taint the environment in a more substantial way.
They release into the air a steady stream of pollutants and greenhouse gases, spewed by vehicles, power generators and the drilling process itself. Estimates vary, but the North Slope oil fields probably produce more smog-forming nitrogen oxides than Washington, D.C., and more carbon dioxide than San Francisco.
Air pollution is an inevitable product of any large industrial operation, just as it is with a city. Air pollution on the North Slope, home to herds of caribou and vast flocks of migrating birds, riles some environmentalists but rarely gets the attention of people outside Alaska, even those caught up in the debate over expanded drilling in the Arctic. Spills and caribou are easier to understand - and make better photos.
Environmentalists insist that air pollution must be part of the debate over drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
"The difficulty with air pollution is it's not tangible unless there's black smoke," said Mike Frank, senior staff attorney with the Trustees for Alaska environmental law firm. "It's difficult for people to get their minds around as an environmental problem. But it's probably more intractable and more difficult to deal with than oil spills, at least spills on land."
The state of Alaska recognizes the pollution, but says the oil companies are staying within government-imposed limits. And those limits should protect the health of the people who live on the slope.
"As far as the department can tell, the companies are generally in compliance with their legal limits or taking steps to correct any exceedances," said John Kuterbach, air permits program manager for the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation.
Oil standards met
A spokesman for BP PLC, which runs Prudhoe Bay, said the company has complied with pollution limits that "should eliminate health risks associated with air emissions from our facilities."
ConocoPhillips Inc. spokeswoman Natalie Knox said the company had recently agreed to use lower-sulfur diesel in its North Slope vehicles as a way of cutting pollution. The company monitors pollution levels in the area.
"Monitoring indicates that the air quality on the North Slope is consistently better than national standards," Knox said.
Pollutants that can harm human health aren't the only issue. The oil field operations pump the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane into the air, contributing incrementally to global warming - which is having serious effects in the Arctic, where permafrost is thawing and sea ice is melting ever earlier.
"We're at ground zero here in Alaska," said Pamela Miller, Arctic coordinator for the Northern Alaska Environmental Center in Fairbanks. "We're already seeing changes in the plants, the wildlife, the ocean. To add even more greenhouse gases here just doesn't make sense."
The exact amount of emissions on the North Slope is difficult to determine.
The state doesn't measure air pollution from the oil fields. Instead, it calculates estimates based on data submitted by the oil companies.
Complicating matters, currents of air in the atmosphere take some pollution generated in lower latitudes - the lower 48 states, Europe and Asia - and dump it in the Arctic. In other words, the air over Prudhoe Bay likely contains pollution from faraway sources as well as from the oil field itself.
Data from the Department of Environmental Conservation suggest the North Slope operations each year emit about 41,408 tons of nitrogen oxides and 779 tons of sulfur dioxide, a key cause of acid rain. The department data also show 3,223 tons of particulate matter emissions, essentially, small airborne soot particles that can cause breathing problems.
Those numbers, however, do not include any mobile sources of air pollution, such as trucks, aircraft and drilling rigs. Environmentalists say the data also don't include several oil field facilities.
Other studies, from government and independent researchers, have arrived at different numbers, using several methods.
The North Slope's air pollution sometimes becomes visible. The sight of it in a remote and largely pristine environment angers environmentalists.
"It's a band of yellowy smog," Miller said, "It's disturbing that with an oil field over a hundred miles away, you can see the effect on the horizon in what is normally a beautiful place."
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